Once depression has been diagnosed and a decision made to treat then the choice of treatment should be dictated by:
Psychological therapies and social interventions are vital to the successful treatment of depression but are beyond the scope of this guideline.
When starting someone on an antidepressant they should be reviewed 2-4 weeks after starting treatment and regularly thereafter depending on their response to treatment. See below for advice on initiating treatment in patients with increased suicide risk.
The first choice of antidepressant should be a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). Switch to another first choice SSRI if the initial SSRI is not tolerated or is ineffective.
See section 4.3.3 Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors
- Adult over 18 years, 20mg once daily increased if necessary in steps of 20mg daily at intervals of 3–4 weeks; maximum 40mg daily (Elderly over 65 years, maximum 20mg daily)
- See section 4.3.3 Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors for MHRA warning on citalopram
- Adult over 18 years, 20mg daily increased after 3–4 weeks if necessary and at appropriate intervals thereafter; maximum 60mg daily (elderly usual maximum 40mg daily but 60mg can be used); child 8–18 years, 10mg daily increased after 1–2 weeks if necessary, maximum 20mg daily
- Adult over 18 years, initially 50mg daily, increased if necessary by increments of 50mg at intervals of at least 1 week to a maximum of 200mg daily; usual maintenance dose 50mg daily
Treatment following failure of two 1st line antidepressants
If the 2nd SSRI is ineffective or unacceptable to the individual then prescribe a better tolerated newer antidepressant.
See section 4.3.4 Other antidepressant drugs
- Adult over 18 years, initially 15–30mg daily at bedtime increased within 2–4 weeks according to response; maximum 45mg daily as a single dose at bedtime or in 2 divided doses
These antidepressants are less well tolerated and should only be used in depression where there is a lack of response to the above agents or a special individual circumstance.
- Adult over 18 years, initially 75mg daily in 2 divided doses increased if necessary at intervals of at least 2 weeks; maximum 375mg daily
- See section 4.3.4 Other antidepressant drugs
Best supported augmentation strategies/combinations
These treatment regimens should only normally be started in primary care in consultation with a consultant psychiatrist or by a GP with specialist knowledge.
Antidepressant plus lithium (Priadel®)
SSRI/venlafaxine plus mirtazapine
Valproate and carbamazepine should not routinely be used to augment antidepressants in depression.
See Bipolar Disorder section for guidance on Lithium Monitoring.
Where an individual has failed to respond to treatment with the regimens described above consider obtaining specialist advice about diagnosis and treatment.
- Consider using a short course (maximum 2 weeks) of a benzodiazepine if an individual develops side effects such as acute anxiety, insomnia or agitation upon commencing an antidepressant. Bear in mind the patient's risk of falls and avoid if chronic anxiety is present prior to commencing antidepressant or if they have a previous history of chemical addictive problems.
- Always ask individuals about adverse effects and aim to find an acceptable resolution for them.
- Tricyclic antidepressants (tricyclics) are less well tolerated than SSRIs, more toxic in overdose and should be avoided in people with a high risk of suicide. Lofepramine is considered safer in overdose than other tricyclics. Dosulepin should not be newly initiated and where appropriate its use should be reviewed.
Antidepressants in special groups
For augmentation strategies please seek specialist advice.
Generally manufacturers recommend avoiding antidepressants in pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, a pragmatic decision is often required weighing the risks versus the benefits of treatment for both the individual and unborn child. For up to date advice contact the National Teratology Service (Tel: 0844 892 0909).
- Citalopram – dose reduction in severe renal failure may be prudent
- Sertraline – no dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal insufficiency
- Fluoxetine – maximum dose 40mg
- Mirtazapine – care with higher doses recommended
- Venlafaxine – dose halved in haemodialysis, in severe renal impairment and for patients on haemodialysis
- Tricyclics – start low and go slow; lofepramine contra-indicated in severe renal impairment
- MAOIs – no dose adjustments required
- Citalopram – maximum dose 20mg daily
- Sertraline – contra-indicated in severe hepatic impairment. Use with caution in mild and moderate impairment
- Fluoxetine – lower dose eg. alternate day dosing recommended
- Mirtazapine – dosage reduction may be necessary
- Venlafaxine – dosage reduction may be necessary
- Tricyclics – use lower starting doses and increase cautiously
- MAOIs – moclobemide only, use lower doses
Children and adolescents (CAMHS)
NICE CG28 Depression in children and young people
- Refer individuals to specialist CAMHS services
- Pharmacological treatment must only occur alongside psychological treatment. Fluoxetine is considered suitable and is licensed. Citalopram and sertraline are second-line options under defined circumstances and are not licensed in this age group
- Consider lower doses in low weight children
- Do not use venlafaxine, tricyclics or paroxetine
- In refractory depression consider augmenting with an antipsychotic if psychotic symptoms are present
- Avoid tricyclics and be wary of any chronic medical conditions that may affect choice of antidepressant. Older adults take longer to respond to antidepressant therapy and are more prone to side effects. Sertraline and citalopram are associated with fewer interactions but refer to appendix 1 of the BNF for more information on interactions
- Lithium can cause signs of toxicity within commonly accepted therapeutic ranges. Consider using lower ranges under specialist advice. See later for Lithium guidance
- Bleeding, in particular GI bleeding can occur with SSRIs and care must be taken when people are already taking medicines also associated with GI bleeding (e.g. NSAIDs, aspirin, clopidogrel, oral steroids, warfarin, and heparins). Consider an alternative antidepressant or use a gastro-protective agent
- Hyponatraemia can occur with any antidepressant but is thought to be more common with SSRIs, especially in older women. Stop the antidepressant if hyponatraemia occurs and consider an alternative when restarting if there are no confounding factors
- Avoid tricyclics, especially dosulepin
- Sertraline has been shown to be safe in people post-MI
- Citalopram is associated with dose-dependent QT interval prolongation (see MHRA advice for further information). Mirtazapine is a suitable alternative to SSRIs in cardiac disease
- Care must be taken when prescribing medicines with warfarin to be aware of any drug interactions. See section on bleeding above
- Citalopram does not interact with anticonvulsants so is considered low risk. Other SSRIs are considered to be low risk too but be wary of possible interactions. Venlafaxine and mirtazapine should be used with caution. Tricyclics are considered to be higher risk
A person with depression started on antidepressants who is considered to present an increased suicide risk or is younger than 30 years (because of the potential increased prevalence of suicidal thoughts in the early stages of antidepressant treatment for this group) should normally be seen after 1 week and frequently thereafter (as appropriate) until the risk is no longer considered clinically important.
In accordance with the National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England, people who have a history of self harm in the last 3 months should receive no more than 14 days supply of medication. This quantity should also be applied when prescribing a new treatment for someone thought to be at risk of suicide.
Stopping and switching between antidepressants
When stopping an antidepressant gradually reduce the dose, normally over a 4-week period. This is to minimise the risk of discontinuation effects. Some people may require longer periods, particularly with drugs with a shorter half-life (such as paroxetine and venlafaxine). This is not required with fluoxetine because of its long half-life. In individuals experiencing troublesome discontinuation effects one option is to swap them to fluoxetine and stop this instead.
General switching advice is to cross taper cautiously between the two antidepressants, bearing in mind the risk of serotonin syndrome when switching between two serotonergic agents.
Exercise particular caution when switching:
- From fluoxetine (or paroxetine) to a tricyclic, because both of these drugs inhibit the metabolism of tricyclics. A lower starting dose of the tricyclic will be required, particularly if switching from fluoxetine because of its long half-life. Recommend stopping fluoxetine for 4-7 days first
- From a non-reversible MAOI: a 2-week washout period is required (other antidepressants should not be prescribed routinely during this period)
- From fluoxetine to non-reversible MAOI – wait 5 weeks after stopping
More detailed advice on switching antidepressants can be found in the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines. A quick-reference guide is available on the MIMS website
Long term use of antidepressants
Longer term use of antidepressants should be considered where there are several risk factors for relapse of depression. Evidence suggests that people with risk factors should continue antidepressant therapy for at least 24 months.
Risk factors for relapse of major depression include:
- Presence of residual symptoms
- Number of previous episodes
- Previous history of recurrent depression
- Severity of most recent episode
- Duration of most recent episode
- Degree of treatment resistance in previous episode
Patient focussed resources