Following a review of the safety and efficacy of Selective serotonin re–uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents, the CSM has advised (December 2003) that the SSRIs citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine and sertraline, and the related antidepressant venlafaxine are contraindicated in those aged under 18 years. Fluvoxamine should also not be used to treat depression in these individuals because there is insufficient information on safety and efficacy.
MHRA Drug Safety Update (December 2011)
Citalopram and escitalopram: QT interval prolongation
Citalopram and escitalopram are contraindicated in patients at greatest risk of QT interval prolongation, such as those with:
- Congenital long QT syndrome
- Known pre-existing QT interval prolongation
- In combination with other medicines that prolong the QT interval; these include (but note that this is not an exhaustive list)
- Class IA and III antiarrhythmics (e.g. amiodarone, dronedarone, quinidine)
- Antipsychotics (e.g. phenothiazine derivatives, pimozide, haloperidol)
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- Some antimicrobial agents (e.g. sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin IV, pentamidine, antimalaria treatment—particularly halofantrine)
- Some antihistamines (astemizole, mizolastine)
- Some antiretrovirals (e.g. ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir)
Patients taking concomitant medications known to increase plasma levels of escitalopram and citalopram may require a dose reduction. Drugs known to increase plasma concentrations of escitalopram and citalopram include some antiretroviral medications, and omeprazole and cimetidine.
Details of specific interactions can be found in the individual Summaries of Product Characteristics.
The balance of benefits and risks of citalopram and escitalopram should be considered carefully; caution is advised in patients with pre-existing risk factors for QT interval prolongation, for example:
- Congestive heart failure
- Recent myocardial infarction
- Bradyarrhythmias or predisposition to hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia because of concomitant illness or medicines
Note that the maximum daily doses for citalopram and escitalopram are restricted – see individual drug entries.
- Tablets 10mg, 20mg, 40mg (£0.81 = 20mg daily)
- Citalopram maximum adult daily dose: 40mg daily.
- In adults over 65 years of age and adults with hepatic impairment the maximum daily dose is 20mg daily
- Capsules 20mg (£0.81 = 20mg daily)
- Liquid 20mg/5ml (£2.81 = 70ml pack)
- Tablets 50mg, 100mg (£1.26 = 28 x 100mg)
- Tablets 5mg, 10mg, 20mg (£1.49 = 10mg daily)
- Escitalopram maximum adult daily dose: 20mg daily.
- In adults over 65 years of age and adults with hepatic impairment the maximum daily dose of escitalopram is 10mg daily.
- Tablets 5mg, 10mg, 20mg (£27.72 all strengths = one daily)
- NICE TA367: Vortioxetine is recommended as an option for treating major depressive episodes in adults whose condition has responded inadequately to two antidepressants within the current episode. (November 2015).
4. Central Nervous System >
4.3 Antidepressant drugs >
4.3.3 Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors
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